After the Arab invasion of Iran and the decay of the Estakhr city the importance of the Estakhr city was transferred to Shiraz. In the 4th and 5th centuries AD, the Al-Boyah dynasty of Fars chose Shiraz as a capital and built mosques, palaces, libraries and fences. In the attack on the Mongol Chingiz Khan, Shiraz escaped destruction and massacre because local rulers were pleased to pay taxes to the Mughals. Shiraz also escaped from the Timur massacre, because Shah Shuja, the governor of Faris, surrendered.
In the thirteenth century, due to the flourishing of science, culture and art, Shiraz became famous in Dar al-'Alam. A large number of famous Iranian poets, Sufis and philosophers have been born in Shiraz, which have contributed significantly to the renown of Shiraz. Among them, Sa'di, Hafez, Ruzbehan and Mulla Sadra can be named.
During the Safavid period and the rule of Shah Abbas, Shiraz was under the control of Imam Gholi Khan and he built magnificent buildings in Shiraz. After the Afghan invasion of Iran and the fall of the Safavid, the descent of Shiraz began and then, with the rebellion of local rulers in the era of Afsharids against Nader Shah, this situation worsened. Nader Shah sent an army to Shiraz and the city fell after several months of siege. After this attack, many magnificent monuments in Shiraz were destroyed, and the population of Shiraz was reduced to 50,000 people, a quarter of the population of the previous century.
Shiraz opened up rapidly. Karim Khan chose Zar Shiraz as the capital of his reign. He hired 12,000 workers to build a fortress in the city center and gutter in the city of Durathoad. He also built mosques, baths, aquarabs and markets. In the Zandieh period, Shiraz also had irrigation and drainage systems. After Karim Khan, his successors did not succeed in preserving the Zandi dynasty, and after them Qajars came, Aqa Muhammad Khan transferred the capital to Tehran. In the Qajar period, Shiraz was also very important, and the rule of Shiraz has always been a special privilege given to the rulers. Many of the Shiraz gardens and buildings were built during this period. The modernization of Shiraz started from Pahlavi era. During this period, several hospitals, universities and factories were built in Shiraz, the most important of them being Namazi Hospital, Shiraz University and Shiraz Oil Refinery, respectively.
After the revolution, the restoration of historical monuments have been considered. Among the most important works, one can mention the citadel of the Karim Khan (Arg), restoration of the Khajavi Kermani Tomb and the gate of the Quran, the vakil bath and Hafezieh.